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Mix 2 parts warm water with one part Fox Valley formula and mix well.   Store mixed formula in refrigerator for up to 48 hours.

Milk replacement for babies transitioning to formula or those with stool or digestive problems should be supplemented with a small amount of acidophilus (1/8 tsp) per ¼ cup mixed formula.  As a preventative measure, it is acceptable to always add a pinch of acidophilus to the formula right before feeding.

If this is the first time you are offering formula to the baby, the baby must be fully hydrated and slowly transitioned onto full strength formula.   Reference the section below entitled, ‘Transitioning to Formula’

Feeding Technique

Preparing Formula

Warm only the formula you will be using for a single feeding. Excess formula may be used later if refrigerated.  The formula should be reasonably warm to the touch when squirted on the inside of your wrist, but not hot.  Add a pinch of acidophilus powder for digestive support to the warmed formula and mix well.

Fill the syringe with the formula and acidophilus mixture. Tightly squeeze a nipple onto the end.    The nipple should not easily pull off when gently tugged.  The nipple selected must not be small enough to be aspirated into the baby’s lungs.

Feeding Preparation

Wash your hands before and after feeding the baby.  Don’t use strong smelling hand soap or lotions as baby’s sense of smell is extraordinarily acute!  Also, babies don’t like cold hands.

Place the nipple against the mouth of the squirrel and squeeze out a little milk. Most babies will start by licking the milk but then rapidly progress to sucking very hard. Press the syringe plunger down very slowly, controlling the rate of feeding.  If milk bubbles out of the nose, the baby starts gaping or making a ‘guppy face’, immediately pull the nipple out of the baby’s mouth.

Reference the ‘Controlling Feeding Rate’ section. Do not try to force fluids into a baby unwilling or unable to swallow.

Feeding Hygiene

Always feed the baby in an upright position in warm conditions with good lighting so that you can monitor the squirrel’s swallowing reflex.

If the baby does aspirate fluids, pull the nipple away from the mouth, and (while firmly supporting the head and body) with a few gentle rapid forward motions, tip the baby forward to help gravity drain the fluid from the nose, blot the nostrils.

When the baby is calm and the airways are clear, resume feeding.

Feeding Position

Squirrels can be pigs and will frequently suck very hard and will, if given the opportunity, over eat. Overeating is not ever a good thing!  

Signs you are feeding too quickly: the baby makes a yawning motion, milk bubbles from the nose or mouth and sneezing. Resolution: stop it.  To help accomplish that, use a ‘slower’ nipple (smaller hole) and or a smaller size syringe that provides better control.  If the baby sucks so hard that the syringe plunger rapidly moves on its own down the barrel, place your thumb against the plunger to add additional resistance and slow the flow.

Controlling Feeding Rate

Important! much like avoiding ‘shaken baby’ syndrome in humans, don’t ever shake or jerk a baby’s head.

If your baby aspirates fluids frequents, try using a smaller syringe, a nipple with a smaller hole, or pressing your thumb against the side of the plunger.   Reference the link entitled, ‘Feeding Complications’

Next Steps

After the baby is warm, properly hydrated (usually on an electrolyte hydration fluid like Pedialyte for 12 to 24 hours, and alert the baby must be transitioned over to full strength formula gradually over several feedings. Introducing formula to quickly will result in life threatening diarrhea and bloat.

Over the next six feedings, increase the strength of the formula according to the schedule below. If no diarrhea or bloating occurs after transition, continue feeding the baby the full strength formula according to the Standard Feeding Schedule. Formula is always mixed with water and not a hydration fluid because the formula already contains electrolytes.

Transitioning to Formula

Feeding Schedule & Amount
Feeding Schedule & Amount

The feeding schedule and amount per feeding  depends on the age and weight of the orphan. This information provides guidance to ensure the proper amount is provided at the correct frequency to  support normal growth.

Feeding Implements

Choosing the right nipple and syringe ensures controlled feeding rates and amounts.  

This section discusses the tools rehabilitators use to avoid common feeding problems.

Feeding Implements
Warming the Baby

If the baby is cool to the touch it must be warmed. This section discusses methods for warming the baby.  See also: Build an Incubator.

Treating Dehydration

Most orphaned and injured wildlife has some degree of dehydration. After treating life threatening illness and warmth, hydration is the next step in stabilizing the squirrel.

Going to the Bathroom

Baby’s with their eyes closed must be stimulated to urinate (pee) and defecate (poop). This page provides step by step instructions for accomplishing the task after every feeding.

Warming the Baby Feeding-Related Complications

Most digestion and intestinal problems can be traced to improper feeding methods. This section cover diagnosing and correcting feeding problems and provides guidance when veterinary care may be warranted..

Treating Dehydration


Never feed a cold baby and always stimulate a baby under six weeks old or whose eyes are still closed to eliminate after every feeding!

Squirrel Milk Replacement

The milk replacement formula you choose can make the difference between a healthy baby, one that barely thrives, and one that does  not survive at all.  This section provides you with the best options available.

Feeding Baby Squirrels